Please cite the mtDNA tree as follows:


van Oven M, Kayser M. 2009. Updated comprehensive phylogenetic tree of global human mitochondrial DNA variation. Hum Mutat 30(2):E386-E394.



Here we provide a phylogenetic tree of global human mitochondrial DNA variation, based on both coding- and control-region mutations, and including haplogroup nomenclature. This mtDNA tree is meant as a framework for evolutionary anthropologists, medical geneticists, genealogists and forensic geneticists. The tree is updated regularly to incorporate information from novel mitogenome sequences.


mtDNA tree Build 16 (19 Feb 2014)



What is new?

rCRS-oriented version of Build 16

Previous Builds of the mtDNA tree

Database of 20666 entire human mtDNA sequences (updated 19 Feb 2014)



Additional resources 

Annotated mtDNA reference sequences:           RSRS              rCRS               differences between RSRS and rCRS

Genomic organization of human mtDNA, linearized view

MtDNA sequences of humanís closest relatives



Maintained by Mannis van Oven (m.vanoven @

Department of Forensic Molecular Biology

Erasmus MC, University Medical Center Rotterdam

The Netherlands