Please cite the mtDNA tree as follows:


van Oven M, Kayser M. 2009. Updated comprehensive phylogenetic tree of global human mitochondrial DNA variation. Hum Mutat 30(2):E386-E394.



This website provides a comprehensive phylogenetic tree of worldwide human mitochondrial DNA variation, currently comprising over 5,400 nodes (haplogroups) with their defining mutations. As such, it gives a detailed view of the genetic evolution of humankind from a matrilineal perspective. This mtDNA tree serves as a framework for evolutionary, anthropological, medical, forensic, and genealogical researchers. Since its launch in 2008, the tree has been updated periodically to incorporate information from newly sequenced mitogenome sequences.


mtDNA tree Build 17 (18 Feb 2016)



What is new?

rCRS-oriented version of Build 17

Previous Builds of the mtDNA tree

Database of 24,275 entire mtDNA sequences considered for tree construction



Additional resources 

The revised Cambridge Reference Sequence (rCRS), annotated

The Reconstructed Sapiens Reference Sequence (RSRS), annotated

Differences between the rCRS and the RSRS

Genomic organization of human mtDNA, linearized view

MtDNA sequences of humanís closest relatives



Maintained by Mannis van Oven (